Every time VG admits defeat, he rewrites his adversary's quotes.
Look dude it's fine. You are allowed to hate black people. Just admit itBlutarski » 03 May 2021, 6:15 pm » wrote: ↑
VG has done this twice to me already.
In most internet forum societies this is seen as substandard and childish behavior that is rewarded with instant "No holds barred" BANNISHMENT.
In your case, I'll just banish you to the same place where I send the rest of the time wasting trolls who have no other life besides trolling this internet forum.
So long **** head....
No, actually we are not allowed to hate black people, but I do. I'd probably hate them less if I was allowed to hate them.
Did Charles Drew "discover" (in about 1940) that plasma could be separated and stored apart from the rest of the blood, thereby revolutionizing transfusion medicine?
MORE BLACK INVENTOR MYTHS THAT DESPERATE WHITE GUILT LIBTARDS GOBBLE UP LIKE FLIES ON ****
This is a great example of the lies that millions of Public School Children are fed every day.Several watch and clockmakers were already established in the colony [Maryland] prior to the time that Banneker made the clock. In Annapolis alone there were at least four such craftsmen prior to 1750. Among these may be mentioned John Batterson, a watchmaker who moved to Annapolis in 1723; James Newberry, a watch and clockmaker who advertised in the Maryland Gazette on July 20, 1748; John Powell, a watch and clockmaker believed to have been indentured and to have been working in 1745; and Powell's master, William Roberts.Silvio Bedini, The Life of Benjamin Banneker (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1999)
Sure you are. Hate as much as you want. You cant be touched for it
Nonsense. I can be...
Hate is in your mind. You can hate all you want....just lie about it. That is what most racists on here do anyway
Clothes DryerGeorge T. Sampson in 1892?
Nineteen years earlier, there were already over 300 US patents for such "clothes-driers" (Subject-Matter Index of Patents...1790 to 1873).A Frenchman named Pochon in 1799 built the first known tumble dryer — a crank-driven, rotating metal drum pierced with ventilation holes and held over heat. Electric tumble dryers appeared in the first half of the 20th century.My invention relates to improvements in clothes-driers.... The object of my invention is to suspend clothing in close relation to a stove by means of frames so constructed that they can be readily placed in proper position and put aside when not required for use.US patent #476416, 1892
This language gives inventors exclusive rights to their inventions. It forms the foundation for today’s nationwide, federal patent system, which no longer allows states to grant patents.Though the language itself was race-neutral, like many of the rights set forth in the Constitution, the patent system didn’t apply for black Americans born into slavery. Slaves were not considered American citizens and laws at the time prevented them, including patents. In 1857, the U.S. commissioner of patents officially ruled that slave inventions.“To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.”
Furnish a list the top 100 patents out of the 50,000 that are claimed.Abatjour » 03 May 2021, 7:39 pm » wrote: ↑
Jonathan Rothwell, Andre M. Perry, and Mike AndrewsMonday, November 23, 2020
The history of Black people’s contributions to the catalog of inventions that marked the Industrial Revolution has been largely muted. This period is considered one of the most innovative eras in world history, seeing the birth of major advances in agriculture, transportation, communications, manufacturing, and electricity that fueled rapid economic growth. With the exception of a few notable inventors who are regularly elevated during Black History Month—e.g., George Washington Carver (peanut products) and Madam C. J. Walker (hair products)—the disregard of many of the era’s Black inventors not only whitewashes the historical record, but biases who we perceive to be innovators in the present.
Using a new database of inventors, this report demonstrates that Black contributions to the Industrial Revolution were influenced by the disproportionate number of Black Americans who lived in the U.S. South in the late 19th and early 20th century, where their opportunities to acquire and apply skills were severely limited by oppressive institutions. Still, Black Americans living outside the South invented nearly as frequently as white Americans, and at rates that would be considered extremely high by historic or global standards of invention even today. We use a novel database created by Sarada, Michael Andrews, and Nicolas Ziebarth that matches inventors listed on patent records in decennial years from 1870 to 1940 to complete census records, which include demographic information for the named inventors.
The data reveals the following:
From 1870 to 1940, Black people living in the North were eight times more likely to be awarded a patent than Black people living in the South. White people in the North were three times more likely to invent a patented technology than white people in the South, but regional effects were weaker for white people and they were much less concentrated in the South than Black people.
In the North, Black people’s share of patents equaled their share of population. Black people accounted for 1.6% of the North’s population and 1.6% of patents across the decades studied. The rate of patenting per capita among northern Black and white residents was extremely high (0.31 per 1,000 residents for Black people and 0.39 for white people). Both of these rates exceed the U.S. rate of invention for most of the country’s history and approach the highest rates observed around the world today at the country level.
With 50,000 total patents, Black people accounted for more inventions during this period than immigrants from every country except England and Germany. In our database, 87% of inventions were traced to people born in the United States, and 2.7% of the U.S. total were invented by Black Americans, which is a larger share than nearly every immigrant group. After accounting for patents during nondecennial years, we estimate that Black people accounted for just under 50,000 total patents during this period.
Given the vast differences between the North and South in providing both skill-generating and skill-using opportunities, this historical research points to the importance of linking political equality and social opportunity to innovation and economic growth. It also provides a reassessment and revaluation of the extraordinary contributions of Black people in the development of the United States as well as global technological advancements.
In leading theories of economic growth, technology and innovation are the driving forces of long-term gains in living standards.[3 ]Ideas—developed and commercialized—are key to innovation, and economics literature has long recognized that patents offer a valuable measure of invention. Patents were particularly important during the so-called Golden Age of Invention (1870 to 1940), or the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, which was characterized by an unprecedented flowering of economic growth and advances in living standards. As historians have documented, people living in the United States contributed disproportionately to this rise.
It is widely believed that Black Americans did not participate in the Industrial Revolution, as suggested by several recently published papers. Likewise, contemporary estimates report that Black people are much less likely to become inventors than whites, Asian Americans, and immigrants.
Our estimates for total patents by Black people during the Golden Age of Invention are similar to those previously published. We use the same database as used in Sarada et al., but we emphasize the importance of regional differences and how legal and cultural institutions in the South were particularly harmful to Black people. In this way, we build on the research of economist Lisa Cook, who is the only scholar we know of who has systematically analyzed how Jim Crow laws suppressed invention among Black people. We extend her work by using a more comprehensive measure of inventors, one that links patent records to newly released digital data from the U.S. Census Bureau for relevant years during the 1870 to 1940 period.
Our conclusion supports the arguments developed in Jonathan Rothwell’s A Republic of Equals, which concluded that educational achievement, innovation, and entrepreneurship were widespread in the North’s Black community in the decades between the end of slavery and beginning of Jim Crow.
I know ... lol ... I'm just teasing him/having some fun with "Checkmate!" now that he cannot avoid admitting that our White ancestors tried to minimize and downplay Black slave's great intelligence and their contributions to American Life.
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