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By Vegas
28 Apr 2021, 7:23 pm in No Holds Barred Political Forum
This political chat room is for you to sound off about any political ideology and discuss current political topics. Everyone is welcome, yes, even conservatives, but keep in mind, the nature of the No Holds Barred political chat forum platform can be friendly to trolling. It is your responsibility to address this wisely. Forum Rules
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Vegasgiants » 03 May 2021, 3:13 pm » wrote: Man you hate black people
Every time VG admits defeat, he rewrites his adversary's quotes.
VG has done this twice to me already.
In most internet forum societies this is seen as substandard and childish behavior that is rewarded with instant "No holds barred" BANISHMENT.
In your case, I'll just banish you to the same place where I send the rest of the time wasting trolls who have no other life besides trolling this  internet forum.
So long **** head.... Image  
 
 

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Blutarski » 03 May 2021, 6:15 pm » wrote: Every time VG admits defeat, he rewrites his adversary's quotes.
VG has done this twice to me already.
In most internet forum societies this is seen as substandard and childish behavior that is rewarded with instant "No holds barred" BANNISHMENT.
In your case, I'll just banish you to the same place where I send the rest of the time wasting trolls who have no other life besides trolling this  internet forum.
So long **** head.... Image
Look dude it's fine.  You are allowed to hate black people.   Just admit it


Or copy and paste if you prefer
 

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Vegasgiants » 03 May 2021, 6:19 pm » wrote: Look dude it's fine.  You are allowed to hate black people.   Just admit it

Or copy and paste if you prefer
No, actually we are not allowed to hate black people, but I do. I'd probably hate them less if I was allowed to hate them.

But I resent these neo puritans telling me what racial preferences I should have. I'll decide my own preferences.
 

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Did Charles Drew "discover" (in about 1940) that plasma could be separated and stored apart from the rest of the blood, thereby revolutionizing transfusion medicine? 
Nope..!!
The possibility of using blood plasma for transfusion purposes was known at least since 1918, when English physician Gordon R. Ward suggested it in a medical journal. In the mid-1930s, John Elliott advanced the idea, emphasizing plasma's advantages in shelf life and donor-recipient compatibility, and in 1939 he and two colleagues reported having used stored plasma in 191 transfusions. Charles Drew was not responsible for any breakthrough scientific or medical discovery; his main career achievement lay in supervising or co-supervising major programs for the collection and shipment of blood and plasma.
Photo of 1/2 White "Negro Inventor" Charles Drew.... :rolleyes:  
Image
 
 

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Abatjour » 03 May 2021, 2:52 pm » wrote: Here is all of the proof you need, right in >here< pal  Image
MORE BLACK INVENTOR MYTHS THAT DESPERATE WHITE GUILT  LIBTARDS GOBBLE UP LIKE FLIES ON ****

Washington DC city plan Benjamin Banneker? 
Nope!!
.
Pierre-Charles L'Enfant created the layout of Washington DC. Banneker assisted Andrew Ellicott in the survey of the federal territory, but played no direct role in the actual planning of the city. The story of Banneker reconstructing the city design from memory after L'Enfant ran away with the plans (with the implication that the project would have failed if not for Banneker) has been debunked by historians.

 Clock or Watch (First in America)
Benjamin Banneker built the first American timepiece in 1753? 
Nope...!!!

Abel Cottey, a Quaker clockmaker from Philadelphia, built a clock that is dated 1709 (source: Six Quaker Clockmakers, by Edward C. Chandlee; Philadelphia, The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1943). Banneker biographer Silvio Bedini further refutes the myth:
Several watch and clockmakers were already established in the colony [Maryland] prior to the time that Banneker made the clock. In Annapolis alone there were at least four such craftsmen prior to 1750. Among these may be mentioned John Batterson, a watchmaker who moved to Annapolis in 1723; James Newberry, a watch and clockmaker who advertised in the Maryland Gazette on July 20, 1748; John Powell, a watch and clockmaker believed to have been indentured and to have been working in 1745; and Powell's master, William Roberts.Silvio Bedini, The Life of Benjamin Banneker (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1999)

Image
This is a great example of the lies that millions of Public School Children are fed every day.
Well at least he looks like an honest to goodness Bantu / Capoid Negro directly descended from the bushmen of Equatorial Africa..
 
 
 
Last edited by Blutarski on 03 May 2021, 6:42 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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FOS » 03 May 2021, 6:22 pm » wrote: No, actually we are not allowed to hate black people, but I do. I'd probably hate them less if I was allowed to hate them.

But I resent these neo puritans telling me what racial preferences I should have. I'll decide my own preferences.
Sure you are.   Hate as much as you want.  You cant be touched for it

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Vegasgiants » 03 May 2021, 6:42 pm » wrote: Sure you are.   Hate as much as you want.  You cant be touched for it
Nonsense. I can be...

For one thing I am of course unemployable. Being retired, whatever. 

If I ever had to legit defend myself from a black, I know I would be convicted of a hate crime...assuming anyone found out.
 

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FOS » 03 May 2021, 6:45 pm » wrote: Nonsense. I can be...

For one thing I am of course unemployable. Being retired, whatever. 

If I ever had to legit defend myself from a black, I know I would be convicted of a hate crime...assuming anyone found out.
Hate is in your mind.  You can hate all you want....just lie about it.  That is what most racists on here do anyway

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Blutarski » 03 May 2021, 2:54 pm » wrote:  The phrase "Real McCoy"  
Let me know, when you are ready to address any of the links right in >here< pal  Image  

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Abatjour » 03 May 2021, 6:51 pm » wrote: Let me know, when you are ready to address any of the links right in >here< pal  Image
Clothes DryerGeorge T. Sampson in 1892? 
Nope...!
The "clothes-drier" described in Sampson's patent was actually a rack for holding clothes near a stove,  [ Image  ]
  and was intended as an "improvement" on similar contraptions:
My invention relates to improvements in clothes-driers.... The object of my invention is to suspend clothing in close relation to a stove by means of frames so constructed that they can be readily placed in proper position and put aside when not required for use.US patent #476416, 1892
Nineteen years earlier, there were already over 300 US patents for such "clothes-driers" (Subject-Matter Index of Patents...1790 to 1873).A Frenchman named Pochon in 1799 built the first known tumble dryer — a crank-driven, rotating metal drum pierced with ventilation holes and held over heat. Electric tumble dryers appeared in the first half of the 20th century.

Image What a 1/2 White Inventor looks like

ImageWhat a full blooded Negro Inventor looks like.

Notice the sagittal crest and the prognastic jaw.
 
 
Last edited by Blutarski on 03 May 2021, 7:21 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Abatjour » 03 May 2021, 6:51 pm » wrote: Let me know, when you are ready to address any of the links right in >here< pal  Image

When you get really CURB STOMPED with the truth...you can always try to pull out the "RACE IS IMAGINARY CARD"...... :rofl:  

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Abatjour » 03 May 2021, 6:51 pm » wrote:
Blutarski » 03 May 2021, 2:54 pm » wrote:  The phrase "Real McCoy"
Let me know, when you are ready to address any of the links right in >here< pal
Image  
 

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The Colorblind Patent System and Black Inventors
By Shontavia Jackson Johnson

https://www.americanbar.org/groups/inte ... inventors/

Published in Landslide Vol. 11 No. 4, ©2019 by the American Bar Association. Reproduced with permission. All rights reserved. This information or any portion thereof may not be copied or disseminated in any form or by any means or stored in an electronic database or retrieval system without the express written consent of the American Bar Association.

Innovation and inventing have been critical to America’s progress since its birth.1 These concepts were so important that the Founding Fathers wrote them into the first Article of the U.S. Constitution, authorizing Congress to give inventors exclusive rights to their inventions for a limited time.2 The Patent Act was one of the first pieces of legislation passed by the first U.S. Congress in 1790, and it revolutionized the global patent landscape.3 By the end of the 1800s, America had catapulted itself to the top of the world’s economic food chain, and the U.S. patent system was one of the reasons why.4 Inventors with access to this system were, and still are, uniquely positioned to quite literally change the world.

From inception, our patent system recognized that American progress needs inventors and that inventors should own the fruits of their intellectual labor for some period of time when certain requirements are met. On paper, these constitutional ideals have always applied equally to the demographic tapestry of American inventors. The original law did not explicitly exclude certain races of inventors from participation in the patent system, unlike some of the other laws that existed at that time. There were, however, practical legal barriers that excluded the earliest black inventors in the United States from obtaining patents.

The patent system simply was not available at that time to enslaved people—they were not considered American citizens, and the rights and provisions of the Constitution did not extend to them.5 In addition, states enacted laws that prevented enslaved people from owning any kind of property, presumably including patents.6

For black inventors who were either born free or otherwise acquired their freedom, there were also legal barriers. After 1793, the Patent Act “included a ‘Patent Oath,’ which eventually required patent applicants to swear to be the ‘original’ inventor of the claimed invention and to their country of citizenship.”7 The U.S. Supreme Court’s 1857 Dred Scott opinion held that black Americans could not be citizens of the United States.8 Arguably, free blacks were precluded from patenting their inventions after Dred Scott because they did not have a country of citizenship and presumably could not swear to the Patent Oath.9 Even after the Dred Scott opinion was superseded by the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments after the Civil War, “the economic and educational conditions that many free blacks faced . . . simply were not conducive to pursuing whatever incentives and opportunities U.S. patent law provided.”10

There was and continues to be a consistently wide gap between the colorblind American patent system and certain groups of inventors, especially black inventors.

This article will highlight black inventors from America’s inception to now. It will also highlight past and present barriers faced by black inventors.

Early Black Inventors in a New America
Three months after President George Washington signed the Patent Act in April 1790, Samuel Hopkins, a white man from Philadelphia, received the first U.S. patent for “an Improvement in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process.”11 It would be 31 years—1821—before Thomas Jennings became the first black inventor to receive a U.S. patent for his dry cleaning methods.12 Martha Jones, who is the first known black woman to obtain a U.S. patent, would not obtain one for her “Improvement to the Corn Husker, Sheller” until 1868,13 while the first (white) woman received a patent 59 years prior in 1809.14

These gaps show the reality of the times—black inventors faced significant barriers whether free or enslaved.15 This did not, however, kill their inventive spirit. People who were enslaved served as prolific inventors on Southern plantations. For example:

At the turn of the nineteenth century, a Kentucky slave invented the hemp brake. In about 1800, a Massachusetts slave named Ebar invented a method of making brooms out of corn stalks. In about 1825, an Alabama slave named Hezekiah invented a machine for cleaning cotton. In 1831, a Charleston, South Carolina slave named Anthony Weston invented an improvement on a threshing machine invented by W.T. Catto . . . . And in 1839, a North Carolina slave named Stephen Slade invented a method of curing tobacco that enabled the creation of the modern cigarette.

These unsung inventors never obtained patents or the financial gains of their inventions—though slave masters and other white men often did. Some would take undue credit for these inventions and/or secretly patent the inventions themselves, ignoring the true inventors...
 

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 America’s always had black inventors – even when the patent system explicitly excluded them

February 14, 2017 9.02pm EST •Updated February 19, 2017 3.23pm ESTAuthor
  1. ImageShontavia Johnson

    Associate Vice President for Academic Partnerships and Innovation, Clemson University

America has long been the land of innovation. One group of prolific innovators, however, has been largely ignored by history: black inventors born or forced into American slavery. Though U.S. patent law was created with color-blind language to foster innovation, the patent system consistently excluded these inventors from recognition.As a law professor and a licensed patent attorney, I understand both the importance of protecting inventions and the negative impact of being unable to use the law to do so.

But despite patents being largely out of reach to them throughout early U.S. history, both slaves and free African-Americans did invent and innovate.Why patents matterIn many countries around the world, innovation is fostered through a patent system. Patents give inventors a monopoly over their invention for a limited time period, allowing them, if they wish, to make money through things like sales and licensing.Understand new developments in science, health and technology, each week.

As a way to recoup costs, patents provide strong incentives for inventors, who can spend millions of dollars and a significant amount of time developing a invention.The history of patents in America is older than the U.S. Constitution, with several colonies granting patents years before the Constitution was created. In 1787, however, members of the Constitutional Convention opened the patent process up to people nationwide by drafting what has come to be known as the Patent and Copyright Clause of the Constitution. It allows Congress:
“To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.”
This language gives inventors exclusive rights to their inventions. It forms the foundation for today’s nationwide, federal patent system, which no longer allows states to grant patents.Though the language itself was race-neutral, like many of the rights set forth in the Constitution, the patent system didn’t apply for black Americans born into slavery. Slaves were not considered American citizens and laws at the time prevented them, including patents. In 1857, the U.S. commissioner of patents officially ruled that slave inventions.

Slaves’ inventions exploited by ownersDuring the 17th and 18th centuries, America was experiencing rapid economic growth. Black inventors were major contributors during this era – even though most did not obtain any of the benefits associated with their inventions since they could not receive patent protection.Slave owners often took credit for their slaves’ inventions. In one well-documented case, a black inventor named Ned invented an effective, innovative cotton scraper. His slave master, Oscar Stewart, attempted to patent the invention. Because Stewart was not the actual inventor, and because the actual inventor was born into slavery, the application was rejected.Stewart ultimately began selling the cotton scraper without the benefit of patent protection and made a significant amount of money doing so. In his advertisements, he openly touted that the product was “the invention of a Negro slave – thus giving the lie to the abolition cry that slavery dwarfs the mind of the Negro. When did a free Negro ever invent anything?”

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The Black innovators who elevated the United States: Reassessing the Golden Age of Invention

Jonathan Rothwell, Andre M. Perry, and Mike AndrewsMonday, November 23, 2020

The history of Black people’s contributions to the catalog of inventions that marked the Industrial Revolution has been largely muted. This period is considered one of the most innovative eras in world history, seeing the birth of major advances in agriculture, transportation, communications, manufacturing, and electricity that fueled rapid economic growth. With the exception of a few notable inventors who are regularly elevated during Black History Month—e.g., George Washington Carver (peanut products) and Madam C. J. Walker (hair products)—the disregard of many of the era’s Black inventors not only whitewashes the historical record, but biases who we perceive to be innovators in the present.

Using a new database of inventors, this report demonstrates that Black contributions to the Industrial Revolution were influenced by the disproportionate number of Black Americans who lived in the U.S. South in the late 19th and early 20th century, where their opportunities to acquire and apply skills were severely limited by oppressive institutions. Still, Black Americans living outside the South invented nearly as frequently as white Americans, and at rates that would be considered extremely high by historic or global standards of invention even today. We use a novel database created by Sarada, Michael Andrews, and Nicolas Ziebarth that matches inventors listed on patent records in decennial years from 1870 to 1940 to complete census records, which include demographic information for the named inventors.[1]

The data reveals the following:

From 1870 to 1940, Black people living in the North were eight times more likely to be awarded a patent than Black people living in the South. White people in the North were three times more likely to invent a patented technology than white people in the South, but regional effects were weaker for white people and they were much less concentrated in the South than Black people.

In the North, Black people’s share of patents equaled their share of population. Black people accounted for 1.6% of the North’s population and 1.6% of patents across the decades studied. The rate of patenting per capita among northern Black and white residents was extremely high (0.31 per 1,000 residents for Black people and 0.39 for white people). Both of these rates exceed the U.S. rate of invention for most of the country’s history and approach the highest rates observed around the world today at the country level.[2]

With 50,000 total patents, Black people accounted for more inventions during this period than immigrants from every country except England and Germany. In our database, 87% of inventions were traced to people born in the United States, and 2.7% of the U.S. total were invented by Black Americans, which is a larger share than nearly every immigrant group. After accounting for patents during nondecennial years, we estimate that Black people accounted for just under 50,000 total patents during this period.

Given the vast differences between the North and South in providing both skill-generating and skill-using opportunities, this historical research points to the importance of linking political equality and social opportunity to innovation and economic growth. It also provides a reassessment and revaluation of the extraordinary contributions of Black people in the development of the United States as well as global technological advancements.

INTRODUCTION
In leading theories of economic growth, technology and innovation are the driving forces of long-term gains in living standards.[3 ]Ideas—developed and commercialized—are key to innovation, and economics literature has long recognized that patents offer a valuable measure of invention. Patents were particularly important during the so-called Golden Age of Invention (1870 to 1940), or the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, which was characterized by an unprecedented flowering of economic growth and advances in living standards.[4] As historians have documented, people living in the United States contributed disproportionately to this rise.

It is widely believed that Black Americans did not participate in the Industrial Revolution, as suggested by several recently published papers.[5] Likewise, contemporary estimates report that Black people are much less likely to become inventors than whites, Asian Americans, and immigrants.

Our estimates for total patents by Black people during the Golden Age of Invention are similar to those previously published. We use the same database as used in Sarada et al., but we emphasize the importance of regional differences and how legal and cultural institutions in the South were particularly harmful to Black people. In this way, we build on the research of economist Lisa Cook, who is the only scholar we know of who has systematically analyzed how Jim Crow laws suppressed invention among Black people.[6] We extend her work by using a more comprehensive measure of inventors, one that links patent records to newly released digital data from the U.S. Census Bureau for relevant years during the 1870 to 1940 period.

Our conclusion supports the arguments developed in Jonathan Rothwell’s A Republic of Equals, which concluded that educational achievement, innovation, and entrepreneurship were widespread in the North’s Black community in the decades between the end of slavery and beginning of Jim Crow.

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Abatjour » 03 May 2021, 6:51 pm » wrote:
Blutarski » 03 May 2021, 2:54 pm » wrote:  The phrase "Real McCoy"  
Let me know, when you are ready to address any of the links right in &gt;here&lt; pal  

 
:D  

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Abatjour » 03 May 2021, 7:39 pm » wrote: The Black innovators who elevated the United States: Reassessing the Golden Age of Invention

Jonathan Rothwell, Andre M. Perry, and Mike AndrewsMonday, November 23, 2020

The history of Black people’s contributions to the catalog of inventions that marked the Industrial Revolution has been largely muted. This period is considered one of the most innovative eras in world history, seeing the birth of major advances in agriculture, transportation, communications, manufacturing, and electricity that fueled rapid economic growth. With the exception of a few notable inventors who are regularly elevated during Black History Month—e.g., George Washington Carver (peanut products) and Madam C. J. Walker (hair products)—the disregard of many of the era’s Black inventors not only whitewashes the historical record, but biases who we perceive to be innovators in the present.

Using a new database of inventors, this report demonstrates that Black contributions to the Industrial Revolution were influenced by the disproportionate number of Black Americans who lived in the U.S. South in the late 19th and early 20th century, where their opportunities to acquire and apply skills were severely limited by oppressive institutions. Still, Black Americans living outside the South invented nearly as frequently as white Americans, and at rates that would be considered extremely high by historic or global standards of invention even today. We use a novel database created by Sarada, Michael Andrews, and Nicolas Ziebarth that matches inventors listed on patent records in decennial years from 1870 to 1940 to complete census records, which include demographic information for the named inventors.[1]

The data reveals the following:

From 1870 to 1940, Black people living in the North were eight times more likely to be awarded a patent than Black people living in the South. White people in the North were three times more likely to invent a patented technology than white people in the South, but regional effects were weaker for white people and they were much less concentrated in the South than Black people.

In the North, Black people’s share of patents equaled their share of population. Black people accounted for 1.6% of the North’s population and 1.6% of patents across the decades studied. The rate of patenting per capita among northern Black and white residents was extremely high (0.31 per 1,000 residents for Black people and 0.39 for white people). Both of these rates exceed the U.S. rate of invention for most of the country’s history and approach the highest rates observed around the world today at the country level.[2]

With 50,000 total patents, Black people accounted for more inventions during this period than immigrants from every country except England and Germany. In our database, 87% of inventions were traced to people born in the United States, and 2.7% of the U.S. total were invented by Black Americans, which is a larger share than nearly every immigrant group. After accounting for patents during nondecennial years, we estimate that Black people accounted for just under 50,000 total patents during this period.

Given the vast differences between the North and South in providing both skill-generating and skill-using opportunities, this historical research points to the importance of linking political equality and social opportunity to innovation and economic growth. It also provides a reassessment and revaluation of the extraordinary contributions of Black people in the development of the United States as well as global technological advancements.

INTRODUCTION
In leading theories of economic growth, technology and innovation are the driving forces of long-term gains in living standards.[3 ]Ideas—developed and commercialized—are key to innovation, and economics literature has long recognized that patents offer a valuable measure of invention. Patents were particularly important during the so-called Golden Age of Invention (1870 to 1940), or the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, which was characterized by an unprecedented flowering of economic growth and advances in living standards.[4] As historians have documented, people living in the United States contributed disproportionately to this rise.

It is widely believed that Black Americans did not participate in the Industrial Revolution, as suggested by several recently published papers.[5] Likewise, contemporary estimates report that Black people are much less likely to become inventors than whites, Asian Americans, and immigrants.

Our estimates for total patents by Black people during the Golden Age of Invention are similar to those previously published. We use the same database as used in Sarada et al., but we emphasize the importance of regional differences and how legal and cultural institutions in the South were particularly harmful to Black people. In this way, we build on the research of economist Lisa Cook, who is the only scholar we know of who has systematically analyzed how Jim Crow laws suppressed invention among Black people.[6] We extend her work by using a more comprehensive measure of inventors, one that links patent records to newly released digital data from the U.S. Census Bureau for relevant years during the 1870 to 1940 period.

Our conclusion supports the arguments developed in Jonathan Rothwell’s A Republic of Equals, which concluded that educational achievement, innovation, and entrepreneurship were widespread in the North’s Black community in the decades between the end of slavery and beginning of Jim Crow.
Furnish a list the top 100 patents out of the 50,000 that are claimed.

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Furnish a list the top 100 patents out of the 50,000 that are claimed.
Do so with photos of the so called "Black Inventors" and patent numbers.....if you dare.

 
Last edited by Blutarski on 03 May 2021, 7:59 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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He will never be ready 

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Vegasgiants » 03 May 2021, 7:58 pm » wrote: He will never be ready
I know ... lol ... I'm just teasing him/having some fun with "Checkmate!" now that he cannot avoid admitting that our White ancestors tried to minimize and downplay Black slave's great intelligence and their contributions to American Life.

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